Why Does This Happen?
Reacting vinegar and bicarbonate soda together produces carbon dioxide and water.
The reaction is as follows
Vinegar + Bicarbonate Soda ---> Carbonic Acid + Sodium Acetate
The carbonic acid is unstable though, so it breaks down into liquid water and carbon dioxide as a gas, causing the massive 'build up' of pressure you saw in the experiment.
The water is left in the vinegar solution whilst the carbon dioxide rises and fills the balloon on the bottle.
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