How to keep fruit from going brown

How to keep fruit from going brown

How to keep fruit from going brown

Follow FizzicsEd 150 Science Experiments:

You will need:

One apple

One 175mL bottle of lemon juice

One glass of water

One sharp knife

Three bowls

Adult supervision

Why Does Fruit Go Brown Science Experiment - setup_materials
1 Why Does Fruit Go Brown Science Experiment - slicingcutting apple with knife

Use the knife to cut the apple into thin slices. You will need three slices for this experiment.

2 Why Does Fruit Go Brown Science Experiment - putting apple slices into bowls

Place one slice of apple in each bowl.

3 Why Does Fruit Go Brown Science Experiment - apple in air

Leave one bowl with just an apple in it.

4

Pour water into the second bowl until it covers the apple.

5 Why Does Fruit Go Brown Science Experiment - apple in lemon juice

Pour lemon juice into the third bowl until it covers the apple.

6 Why Does Fruit Go Brown Science Experiment - apple in air, apple in water, apple in lemon juice

Leave the bowls aside for at least 30 minuets

7 Why Does Fruit Go Brown Science Experiment - end results apple in air, water and lemon juice

After 30 minutes, check the three apples slices.
What do you notice about them?
Have they all turned brown, why and why not?

Why Does This Happen:

When you cut up an apple, the cells inside it become exposed to the air. The air, as we know, contains a lot of oxygen. When oxygen enters the cells of the apple, it reacts with some of the chemicals in them, and this chemical reaction ends up making a brown chemical product. This chemical reaction is called oxidation.

  • The apple in the bowl by itself turns very brown, because the air has got easy access into the cells of the apple.
  • The apple that’s covered with water goes brown a little less and a little slower. Obviously, the air isn’t able to get into the apple cells because the water is in the way. However, there’s also oxygen dissolved in the water.  The oxygen in the water gets into the apple cells, and causes them to turn brown in the same way as the air. (This oxygen is the same gas that fish breathe with their gills).
  • The lemon juice contains a chemical call ascorbic acid. You’ve probably heard of it from its other name: Vitamin C. There is some oxygen dissolved in the lemon juice, just like in the water. In this case however, the oxygen can react with two different chemicals: the chemicals inside the cells of the apple, and the Vitamin C. The oxygen actually prefers to oxidise the Vitamin C, and so the oxygen reacts with this first. Eventually, all the Vitamin C gets oxidised and used up, and the oxygen starts browning the apple again. If you leave the apple for longer than half an hour (like say, overnight) you’ll see this take place. The fact that the Vitamin C keeps the apple fresher for longer makes it a preservative.

There are many chemicals we use to preserve food.

  • Some are antioxidants like Vitamin C, which stop the oxidation reactions that can spoil food.
  • Others are antimicrobial, chemicals that kill the bacteria that can grow on food.

Learn More!

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